What is BGA Assembly- Applications, Advantages & BGA Families

BGA or Ball grid array is a type of packaging used to mount devices like a microprocessor with many hundreds of pins. It’s also called Ball Grid Array. The BGA packages or ICs are mounted directly onto the BGA board and soldered in place, this process is called BGA assembly.

A BGA package usually consists of two boards: the ball grid array (sometimes called the “backplane”) and the chip package. The ball grid array holds the individual chips, which are referred to as “balls.” The chip package contains the electronic circuitry for the BGA package, which is why it’s often referred to as the “front plane.” (The front plane has the chip package, whereas the backplane has the ball grid array.)

What is BGA and BGA assembly?

What is BGA Assembly
What is BGA Assembly
  • BGA

BGA is a short form for Ball Grid Array. It is a high-performance, small-size, and lightweight packaging style for ICs. A ball grid array (BGA) is like a surface-mount packaging, a chip carrier used for integrated circuits. These are used to mount devices with many hundreds of pins(like microprocessors) permanently.

A BGA board
A BGA board

So, a BGA can provide more interconnection pins for ICs than a dual in-line or flat package. It often uses the entire bottom surface of the device, rather than the perimeter.

  • BGA Assembly

The process of assembling the BGA package or soldering the IC onto the BGA board is called a BGA assembly. Just like the process of assembling the SMD package is called SMD assembly. But unlike SMD assembly, the soldering of BGA needs precise control and is done by automated processes.

BGA IC's placed over the RAM PCB
BGA ICs placed over the RAM PCB

**Image Source: Rainer Knäpper, Free Art License

BGA assembly or getting a custom-made BGA is a tricky thing. A BGA comprises microcircuits that are not easy to work with.

Application of solder paste in BGA Assembly

In most cases, BGA rework is often achieved and is usually more reliable, without the addition of solder paste (i.e., using only the solder balls). This assumes an honest site prep and proper flux process. In cases where there could also be planarity issues, solder paste is often beneficial.

Advantages of using solder paste:

Ball Grid Array (BGA) is a style of circuit board that uses small circular balls of solder to the flow of electricity between parts of the circuit. This brings its variety of benefits to PCB assembly:

  • Higher-density circuits:
    As through-hole circuits were more densely-populated, soldering them without crossover or short-circuits became impossible.
  • Heat conduction:
    BGA circuits allow heat to pass far more from the microcircuit outwards, reducing overheating problems.
  • Lower inductance:
    Each solder ball during a BGA circuit is usually only a couple of millimeters large, problems from interference within the circuit turned out to be minimal.
  • Increase in Thermal and Electrical Performance:
    Since the tiny size of the PCB supports BGA packaging, it’s easier to dissipate heat more often. With a silicon wafer mount on top, most of the warmth often transmits downwards to the ball grids. When the placement is at rock bottom, the rear of the silicon wafer connects to the highest of packaging, which is taken into account together with the simplest cooling methods. BGA packaging has no pins which can bend and break, which makes it stable enough so that the electrical performance is often ensured on an outsize scale.
  • Fewer Damage Leads:
    BGA leads composed of solid solder balls that cannot take damage during the process of operation.

BGA Families

There are mainly three types of BGAs:

  1. PBGA (plastic ball grid array)
  2. CBGA (ceramic ball grid array), and
  3. TBGA (tape ball grid array).
  • PBGA:

    In PGBA normally, BT resin/glass laminate to employ because of the substrate, and plastic of the packaging material. Solder balls are often classified into lead and lead-free solders. No other soldering method is required to attach the solder balls with the packaging body.

  • CBGA:

    CBGA has the longest history among the three sorts of BGAs. The fabric of the substrate is multi-layer ceramic. The metal cover is soldered onto the substrate by packaging solder to guard the chip, leads, and pad. It uses eutectic solder because of the material of solder balls.

  • TBGA:

    TBGA may be a structure with a cavity. There are two sorts of interconnections between chip and substrate:
    1. Inverted solder bonding and
    2. Lead bonding.

If you want a custom-made BGA, you can reach out to PCBWay. It is among the best in the industry for electronic jobs. With advanced and unique assembly equipment, PCBWay can meet your all electronics needs.

Why go for PCBWay?

PCBWay is one of the leading companies in PCB manufacturing and assembly. If you want a BGA assembled, PCBWay is the go-to place for you. still, don’t believe us? well, see for yourself.

  • PCBWay has four automated placement systems with Vision Systems which are capable of inspecting solder ball coverage.
  • They have One automated system available with a 3-D laser that is capable of inspecting solder ball height and Automatic placement of CBGA, PBGA, and MBGA
  • Verification of BGA’s is done using Phoenix’s real-time x-ray system.
  • The BGA technology of PCBWay is usually the least size of 0.3mm. The least distance to the circuit line is 0.2mm, and the least distance between two BGA is 0.2mm. You can also get a custom design for the higher sizes on demand.

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