16×2 LCD Pinout, Datasheet, Dimensions & Commands

16×2 Liquid Crystal Display is an electronic display module used in different circuits and gadgets. It has 16 columns and 2 rows, which allows it to display 32 characters (16 x 2=32), each of which is built up of 5 x 8 (40) pixel dots.

The main technology behind this display is multi-segment light-emitting diodes. Using multi-segment LED we can display many characters or numbers. Since these LCD modules are inexpensive and easy to program, they are frequently utilized in DIY embedded applications.

LCD Display 16x2
16×2 LCD Display


  • The operating voltage is 4.7V to 5.3V
  • The operating current is 1mA without a backlight
  • The display bezel is 72 x 25mm
  • LED color for the backlight is green or blue
  • Number of columns: 16
  • Number of rows: 2
  • Characters: 32
  • The font size of the character is: 0.125 x 0.200 (width: height)
  • It displays a few custom-generated characters
  • The alphanumeric LCD display i.e. alphabets and numbers


Pinout LCD 16x2
16×2 LCD Pinout

A 16×2 LCD display has 16 pins. Each pin serves a specific purpose, which is shown in the table below.

Pin No.Pin NameDescription
Pin 1GroundThis is the ground pin of the LCD
Pin 2VCCThis is the supply voltage pin of the LCD
Pin 3VEEAdjusts the contrast of the LCD
Pin 4Register SelectToggles between Command/Data Register
Pin 5Read / WriteToggles the LCD between Read/Write operation
Pin 6EnableMust be held high to perform Read/Write operation
Pin 7 – 14Data PinsThese pins are used to send commands or data to the LCD
Pin 15LED PositiveNormal LED-like operation to illuminate the LCD
Pin 16LED NegativeNormal LED-like operation to illuminate the LCD connected to ground
Pinout of 16×2 LCD

Back Side of 16×2 LCD

Back side of LCD 16x2
16×2 LCD (Back side)

On the back side, we can see some circuits. Let us understand the purpose of each in detail.

It becomes a complicated task to configure everything using a microcontroller. Therefore, an Interface IC like the HD44780 is employed and put on the LCD Module’s backside. This IC’s job is to receive commands and data from the microcontroller and process them so that relevant data can be displayed on the LCD screen. A few complimentary resistors are also used with the LCD controller.

There are some empty footprints on the PCB module. The charge pumps circuits like the ICL7660 or MAX660 are intended for use with these footprints.

The Rosc typically has a value of 91K Ohms at 5V VCC. Its value gets modified when any timing issues or problems occur with command execution.

Read also: 74HC595 Pinout, Specs, Working, and Datasheet

Commands used to drive 16×2 LCD

Prior to connecting a 16×2 LCD to any microcontroller, the LCD needs to be initialized. We must send certain commands to do that. Similarly, we must send commands to clear the display or change the cursor position. In short, we may say that commands are used to drive LCD16x2.

Commonly Used LCD 16×2 Commands

Hex CodeFunction
0FTurn ON the display and Cursor
01It will clear the screen
02The cursor will return at (0,0) position
04It will shift the cursor to the left
06It will shift the cursor to the right
05The display will shift to the right
07The display will shift to the left
0EThe display will be ON and the cursor will start blinking
80It will force the cursor to start at the beginning
C0It will make the cursor start from the second line
38Forms 5×7 Matrix with 2 lines
83Brings the cursor to the first line but in the third position
3CIt will activate the second line
08It will turn the display and the cursor OFF
C1It will make the cursor jump to the second line but at the first position
0CThe display will be ON but now there won’t be any cursor on the screen
C2It will make the cursor jump to the second line and at the second position
Commands used to drive 16×2 LCD

What is the use of RS (Register Select) Pin?

We use the register select pin to change from one register to another. In a 16×2 LCD, Command, and data registers are used. RS is equal to zero for the command register and one for the data register.

Command Register in 16×2 LCD

The command instructions sent to the LCD are stored in the command register. An LCD receives a command when instructed to carry out a certain operation. Examples:

  • Clearing Screen
  • Setting cursor position
  • Initializing LCD etc.

Note: The command register is where commands are processed.

Data Register in 16X2 LCD

The data that will be displayed on the LCD is kept in the data register. The character’s ASCII value, which will be displayed on the LCD, is the data. Data is processed in the data register before being sent to LCD. The data register is chosen when RS=1.

16×2 LCD datasheet

Given below is the datasheet of the 16×2 LCD by Adafruit. You can download it from here.

16 X2 LCD Datasheet
16 X2 LCD Datasheet

Note: Please refer to the manufacturer specific datasheet of the LCD.

What are the Dimensions of 16X2 LCD

Dimensions of 16X2 LCD Display
Dimensions of 16X2 LCD Display

This 16×2 LCD display has a maximum thickness of 13.2 mm with outline dimensions of 85.0 x 30.2 mm and VA(Vertical Alignment) 64.5 x 16.0 mm, respectively.

Applications of 16X2 LCD

A 16×2 LCD can display numbers as well as characters. That’s why it is used in a variety of applications. Some of them are: Calculators, Weighing scales, BMI machines, DIY projects, etc.

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