How do Electric Cars work? Architecture- EV vs Gas Car

Electric cars are becoming more and more popular due to their environmental friendliness and decreased running costs. But how do Electric cars work? How are they powered? How does the architecture of an electric car differ from a petrol or diesel car?

In this article, we will explore the answers to these questions and more.

The architecture of electric cars- 4 Subsystems

How do Electric cars work and their Architecture
Electric Cars Working and their Architecture

The architecture of an electric vehicle is composed of numerous subsystems which work together to create a functioning EV. These subsystems can be broadly classified into four categories:

  • The Powertrain
  • The Energy Storage System
  • The Vehicle Control System
  • The Auxiliary Systems

The powertrain is responsible for converting electrical energy into motion, while the energy storage system stores electrical energy for later uses. The vehicle control system manages all of the other systems in the car as well as calculates how much power to send to the motor.

Finally, auxiliary systems provide features such as climate control and entertainment.

How does an electric car’s powertrain work?

EV powertrain components
EV powertrain components

The powertrain in an electric car is made up of four main components:

  • Battery
  • Electric motor
  • Inverter
  • Charger

The battery is the heart of the powertrain and stores electrical energy. The electric motor converts this electrical energy into motion, while the inverter regulates voltage levels. Lastly, the charger transfers electrical energy from the grid to the battery.

What are the benefits of an electric car’s powertrain?

There are several benefits to using an electric car’s powertrain.

  • Electric motors are more efficient than petrol or diesel engines.
  • They produce fewer emissions, making them environmentally friendly.
  • Electric cars have a smaller number of moving parts which leads to decreased maintenance costs.
  • Lastly, electric cars can recapture energy that is normally lost during braking, making them more efficient overall.

Related: 4 Helpful Tips for Electric Car Maintenance (with FAQs)

Architecture: Electric Car VS Gas Cars?

EV architecture is the design and construction of electric vehicles. The goal of EV architecture is to create a vehicle that is both environmentally friendly and efficient. EV architecture typically includes a battery pack, motor, and controller.

The battery pack provides power to the motor, which drives the wheels. The controller regulates the flow of electrical current between the battery pack and the motor. EV architecture can vary depending on the specific needs of the vehicle.

For example, some EV architectures may use a single motor to drive all four wheels, while others may use two motors, one for each axle.

The architecture of an electric car can be understood in terms of design, engine location, and the presence of a gearbox.


Petrol and diesel cars rely on an internal combustion engine to convert fuel into motion. An electric motor, on the other hand, relies on electrical energy which is stored in a battery. This difference means that electric cars require a completely different design than petrol or diesel cars.

Engine Location

One major difference between EVs and petrol/diesel cars is the location of the engine. In electric cars, the engine is located in the front or rear of the vehicle, while in petrol/diesel cars, the engine is typically located in the middle.

This difference impacts the weight and balance of the car, as well as how much space is available for passengers or cargo.


Electric cars don’t require multi-speed transmissions because of the so-called “engine” in an electric car, an electric motor. While internal combustion engines require multiple gears with different ratios for power output, electric motors produce a consistent amount of torque at any given RPM within a specific range.

This means that an electric car only needs one gear, and there is no need for a complex transmission system.

Electric cars also tend to be more efficient than traditional petrol or diesel cars, as there is no energy lost through the transmission process. Electric cars are becoming increasingly popular, and it is likely that the number of gearboxes in use will continue to decline as more manufacturers switch to electric motors.

Related: Hydrogen vs Electric Cars (5 Key Differences)

How does an electric car charge?

Charging an Electric car
Charging an Electric car

Electric cars can be charged in two ways: through a standard outlet or a fast-charging station.

Charging an electric car through a standard outlet is a slow process and can take up to 12 hours to fully charge the battery.

Fast-charging stations, on the other hand, can charge an electric car in as little as 30 minutes. This makes fast-charging stations a more convenient option for those who frequently drive long distances.

Read more: Electric Car Charging Methods

What are the challenges to design a better electric car?

Electric cars are the future. We all know that. But what many people don’t realize is that electric vehicle architecture is a complex and challenging endeavor.

There are so many factors to consider when designing an electric car. i.e., range, performance, weight, size, and charging infrastructure, to name a few. And with new electric cars hitting the market every day, the competition is fierce.

If electric cars are to be a viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, they need an electric vehicle architecture that can meet consumers’ needs and desires. The electric car industry is still in its infancy, so there are many opportunities for innovation.


The first challenge electric cars face is range anxiety. The fear that you won’t have enough charge left when you arrive at your destination. There have been efforts to address this problem by designing longer-range batteries with more energy density and better battery management systems.

However, these solutions may not be feasible or affordable due to current limitations on materials technology (for example lithium-ion battery technology). Another solution is to create a network of fast-charging stations, but this requires infrastructure investment and may not be practical in many parts of the world.

Battery Cost

Electric vehicle battery
Electric vehicle battery

A second challenge electric cars face is the high cost of batteries. The cost of electric vehicle batteries has been falling steadily, but they are still much more expensive than gasoline or diesel fuel.

This high cost means that electric cars are not yet priced competitive with traditional vehicles, which puts them at a disadvantage in the market.

One way to reduce the cost of batteries is to improve manufacturing efficiency and scale up production. Another way to reduce the cost is to develop new battery chemistries with higher energy density and lower production costs.

Safety and Reliability

The third challenge electric cars face is concern over safety and reliability. Electric cars are powered by batteries, which can sometimes overheat or catch fire.

This has led to concerns about the safety of electric cars, and it is one of the main reasons why some people are hesitant to switch to electric vehicles. To address this problem, electric car manufacturers need to design better battery management systems and improve the cooling systems in their vehicles.


The fourth challenge electric cars face is a lack of consumer awareness. Many people are not familiar with electric cars and do not understand how they work or what their benefits are. This lack of awareness is a barrier to electric car adoption.

To increase consumer awareness, electric car manufacturers need to invest in marketing and education efforts.

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Kanishk Godiyal

I have a keen passion for learning and understanding various concepts of electronics. Combining my knowledge with my SEO skills, my aim is to make electronics easy for every tech enthusiast out there.

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